Piano notation for student unable to access written and spoken language, Apple Silicon: port all Homebrew packages under /usr/local/opt/ to /opt/homebrew. However, the dipole moments in 1,2-difluorobenzene reinforce each other since they are on the same side of the benzene ring. How would you prepare 2 L of 1M MgCl2 from a 5 M stock MgCl2 solution (8.42)? It only takes a minute to sign up. A moment is a measure of a turning force about an axis. How to determine which of two similar compounds has the larger dipole moment? What is the earliest queen move in any strong, modern opening? The dipole moment of CIO2 is ... the dipole moment of SO2 The dipole moment of AsF3 is ... the dipole moment of AsF5 The dipole moment of H20 is the dipole moment of H2S Dipole moment of HBr is The dipole … While in chloromethane H atoms won't face much repulsion from each other rather they would feel more repulsion from cl, hence they will be closer and increase the net dipole. The bond dipole moment uses the idea of electric dipole moment to measure the polarity of a chemical bond within a molecule.It occurs whenever there is a separation of positive and negative charges. The dipole moment of ICl is ... dipole moment of IF How to learn Latin without resources in mother language. (b) Given two parallel conducting plates of area A and charge densities + σ and - σ. Ccl4 has 4 vectors pointing outwards but these vectors cancel, hence 0 dipole. X To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Stack Exchange Network. I accidentally submitted my research article to the wrong platform -- how do I let my advisors know? compare the barn polarities of the diaper morning of carbon dioxide and O. C. S U withdraw the Lewis structures. Dipole moment is represented by an arrow, with cross (+) on one side. Now to compare the other three compounds I don't have logical reasoning to compare the dipole moments but I have the data to compare but in the examination we won't be having these data so I was looking for any logical reasoning to compare the dipole moments of the remaining three compounds. If more electronegative atoms are there in an atom it will have more dipole moment. The common vector arrangement is there are 3 vectors pointing upwards but away from each other and one pointing upwards. Order of dipole moments of chlorine substituted methane (CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4), Dipole moment difference between ch2f2 and ch3f. How do they determine dynamic pressure has hit a max? The SI units for electric dipole moment are coulomb-meter (C⋅m); however, a commonly used unit in atomic physics and chemistry is the debye (D). A: Given that,Temperature = 330 KMolar mass of CO = 28.01 g/mole. Now I know that in $\ce{CCl4}$ there will be no dipole moment. The shape would be altered in space and cl atoms would be spaced away from each other. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. Dipole moment can also be zero, when opposite two bond dipoles cancel each other. Thanks for contributing an answer to Chemistry Stack Exchange! Reason The dipole moments in C C l 4 cancel each other out. Mainly, the more electronegative atom bears a partial negative, and the other atom has a partial positive charge which are indicated by the delta plus (δ+) and delta minus (δ-) symbols: The direction and magnitude of polarity in a bond are given by the dipole moment which is … 10-066: Comparing Dipole Moments site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. If the individual bond dipole moments cancel one another, there is no net dipole moment. Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists, academics, teachers, and students in the field of chemistry. It is a useful concept in atoms and molecules where the effects of charge separation are measurable, but the distances between the charges are too small to be easily measurable. View Answer. In one case upward pointing vector is the larger c-cl vector and smaller h-cl in the other. The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity. View Answer. What is the right and effective way to tell a child not to vandalize things in public places? Correct me if I'm wrong but as all the atoms around c are not the same, the structure won't be perfect tetrahedral. Look at dipole moment as a vector with the head of vector pointing towards the more electronegative atom. In contrast, the cis isomer is a polar molecule with a higher boiling point (60 o C vs 48 o C ) because of the net molecular dipole moment and intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. The dipole moment acts in … London dispersion … Magnetic Dipole Moment. In both molecules i.e., N H 3 and N F 3 , the central atom (N) has a lone pair electron and there are three bond pairs. The dipole moment of ClO2 is ... the dipole moment of SO2. b. To calculate the dipole for the entire molecule, add all the individual dipoles of the individual bonds as their vector. The arrow side denotes the negative sign, while the + side denotes the positive sign. Compare the dipole moments of the following pairs of molecules and determine whether the first is "Greater Than", "Less Than" or "Equal to" the second. Compare the dipole moments of the following pairs of molecules and determine whether the first is "Greater d. 8.12 L (that's why it has less stronger dipole.) X I want to compare the field of two electrical currents and compare the resulting field to a magnetic dipol field and find magnetic momentum that minimizes the difference of the two fields. The dipole moment of AsF3 is ... the dipole moment of AsF5 Some typical gas phase values in debye units include: 1. carbon dioxide: 0 (despite having two polar C=O bonds, the two are pointed in geometrically opposite directions, canceling each other out and resulting i… These problems are based on visualization and vectors help you visualize better. The strength of a dipole moment of a molecule is proportional to the strength of a dipole-dipole force. Submit Answer Tries 0/5, Experts are waiting 24/7 to provide step-by-step solutions in as fast as 30 minutes!*. The dipole moment makes sense for neutral systems, i.e. dipole moment is a separation of positive and negative charges. the dipole moment of HCl Discussion. The key difference between induced dipole and permanent dipole is that induced dipole moment can change when the factors affecting the dipole moment are changed, whereas changing external factors do not affect the permanent dipole moment.. Intermolecular forces are the interactions between molecules. View Answer. The term dipole moment can be defined either with respect to chemical bonds or with respect to molecules. Compare the dipole moments of $\mathrm{CO}_{2}$ and OCS. MEDIUM. VIEW MORE. Than", "Less Than" or "Equal to" the second. 5... Q: How many grams of solid barium hydroxide are needed to exactly neutralize 15.0 mL of a 0.207 M nitri... A: Given dataVolume of the nitric acid = 15.0 mLMolarity of nitric acid = 0.207 MThe equation of reacti... *Response times vary by subject and question complexity. The bond angles in chloroform and methyl chloride are all very close to the ideal tetrahedral angle. The dipole moment of a molecule is therefore the vector sum of the dipole moments of the individual bonds in the molecule. 0.325 L Thus 1,2-difluorobenzene has the greater dipole moment. Then, the angle between the atoms is used to find the net dipole moment. Difference of dipole moments of dichloromethane and trichloromethane? Unlike a dipole, it will experience neither a net force nor a net torque in any uniform field. View Answer. The electric dipole moment for a pair of opposite charges of magnitude q is defined as the magnitude of the charge times the distance between them and the defined direction is toward the positive charge. It is denoted by the Greek letter ‘µ’.Mathematically,Dipole Moment (µ) = Charge (Q) * distance of separation (r)It is measured in Debye units denoted by ‘D’. Find answers to questions asked by student like you, 10-066: Comparing Dipole Moments Compare the dipole moments of the following pairs of molecules and determine whether the first is "Greater Than", "Less Than" or "Equal to" the second. Unofficial Transcript... I have to find the decreasing order of dipole moment of $\ce{CHCl3}$, $\ce{CH3Cl}$, $\ce{CH2Cl2}$, and $\ce{CCl4}$. View Answer. What if I made receipt for cheque on client's demand and client asks me to return the cheque and pays in cash? The bond dipole μ is given by: =. The result seems that S in thiophene has better conjugation effect. No need to respond to me, just incorporate your thinking into your answer. Nonpolar $$\ce{CCl_4}$$ is not deflected; moderately polar acetone deflects slightly; highly polar water deflects strongly. In general, … The dipole moment of H20 is Calculate the standard free-energy changes for the following reactions ... A: The standard free-energy change of any reaction is calculated by the formula shown below. When you place a molecule with an electric dipole in an electric field, a force acts to turn the molecule so that the positive and negative ends line up with the field. Dipole moment of SO2 is ... the dipole moment of SO3. Justify your answer. The dipole moment of a molecule can be calculated by Equation 1.1 1.1: μ⃗ =∑iqir⃗ i(1.1) (1.1) μ →= ∑ i q i r → i. where. 10-066: Comparing Dipole Moments Compare the dipole moments of the following pairs of molecules and determine whether the first is "Greater Than", "Less Than" or "Equal to" the second. "nec sit terris ultima Thule" - how should terris be interpreted? Answer Chapter 9 Molecular Geometry: Shape Determines Function Chemistry The Science in Context Topics. What volume of 0.200M HI is needed to neutralize 65.0 g NaOH? View Answer. the dipole moment of H2S and I don't seem to explain why. iv) We need to consider the electronegativity of the atom here. Bond Dipole Moment. The magnitude of the turning force is given by the formula µ = q × d chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/8977/…. Note they have tetrahedral geometry. The quantity $$yz$$ is the area of the loop, $$A$$. Why does chloromethane have a larger dipole moment than chloroform? 1. The net vector would be along one of cl atoms but as other cl atoms have components of their vectors opposite to the … PRO LT Handlebar Stem asks to tighten top handlebar screws first before bottom screws? Which 3 daemons to upload on humanoid targets in Cyberpunk 2077? In future applications, we may have the current fed into the loop by a single wire, which is wound around th perimeter several times. Chcl3, 1 vector from H towards c, 3 vectors from c to each cl atom. It has no net charge and no net dipole moment. Look at dipole moment as a vector with the head of vector pointing towards the more electronegative atom. S Docu... A: To find the new concentration of the solution, we have to use the dilution equation in respect to li... Q: 8. Ch3cl, net dipole is along the cl atom and further each H==>C dipole is increasing the magnitude of the vector. The dipole moment of CIO2 is ... the dipole moment of SO2 This organic chemistry video tutorial provides a basic introduction into dipole moment and molecular polarity. We know the carbon dioxide is linear. х These forces do not occur among molecules with a zero dipole movement. Use MathJax to format equations. The dipole moment of CIO2 is ... the dipole moment of SO2 The dipole moment of AsF3 is ... the dipole moment of AsF5 The dipole moment of H20 is the dipole moment of H2S Dipole moment of HBr is The dipole moment of ICl is ... dipole moment of IF the dipole moment of HCl Submit Answer Tries 0/5. What are London Dispersion Forces. Dipole moment of H F is less than that of H C l because of shorter bond length of H F. MEDIUM. when this separation changes during the vibrational motion of a molecule it is IR active. Zombies but they don't bite cause that's stupid, Exporting QGIS Field Calculator user defined function. Hence, both molecules have a pyramidal shape. Where am I wrong? Ch2cl2, net vector would be somewhere between the 2 c==>cl vectors but there are not much opposite components of vectors as compared to chcl3, it has greater dipole than the former. Summarizing it, remember that given the same functional groups, the boiling and melting points would naturally be expected to increase with the molecular mass (size) of the molecule. a. rev 2021.1.8.38287, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Chemistry Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us. (ii) Presence of external electric field. p → \overrightarrow{p} p - electric dipole moment of the whole system, r i → \overrightarrow{r_i} r i - a vector pointing to the i-th electric charge, q i q_i q i - value of i-th charge, n n n - number of charges in the system. Dipole moment of HBr is The net vector would be along one of cl atoms but as other cl atoms have components of their vectors opposite to the victorious cl atom, dipole would be reduced. The dipole moment measures the polarity of a molecule. When a microwave oven stops, why are unpopped kernels very hot and popped kernels not hot? View Answer. Secondly, why thiophene has weaker dipole moment when the S atom has larger p obitals, and therefore, has weaker conjugation ability than O to aromatic ring. Here we introduce a shortcut for future torque calculations. Rhythm notation syncopation over the third beat. 101 Chem 101 Conflicting manual instructions? Dipole-diploe forces can be seen among molecules like water, HCl, etc. In chloromethane we would have only 1 bigger c-cl dipole and 3 h-c dipoles contributing towards it. 8. The electronegativity difference between carbon and hydrogen is roughly the same as the difference between carbon and chlorine. If you want any speci... Q: Calculate the most probable speed of CO molecules at 330 K . How many things can a person hold and use at one time? So why is the magnitude of the dipole moment between methyl chloride and chloroform so different? The net dipole moment of N F 3 is less than that of N H 3 . The dipole moment of ICl is ... dipole moment of IF . View Answer. So, you know the dipole moment must point toward the oxygen atoms. Is the bullet train in China typically cheaper than taking a domestic flight? My current . If 40 mL of a ... A: Hey, since there are multiple questions posted, we will answer first question. Video Transcript. Answer. When a molecule consists of more than two atoms, more than one bond is holding the molecule together. Contributor; Consider the system of charges shown in Figure $$III$$.13. Focus on the different bond lengths. Dipole moment values can be experimentally obtained by measuring the dielectric constant. The greater the difference between electronegativity values, greater the dipole moment. X (274) (Letra) A Mi Me Esta D MathJax reference. 9. Thank you. (a) Compare the individual dipole moment and the specimen dipole moment for H 2 O molecule and O 2 molecule when placed in (i) Absence of external electric field. These interactions may include both attractions and repulsions. Ccl4 has 4 vectors pointing outwards but these vectors cancel, hence 0 dipole. But we just switched their dipoles. View Answer. The electrons in a covalent bond connecting two different atoms are not equally shared by the atoms due to the electronegativity difference between the two elements. T... Q: The target diol is synthesized in one step from 1-methylcyclopentene, but your lab partner exhausted... Q: 1 Can you legally move a dead body to preserve it as evidence? The molecular dipole moment can be represented as the sum of the individual atomic dipole moments and the pairwise atomic dipole contributions. Dipole moment is the approximate value of the difference in the electronegativities of two atoms.Draw dipole moment vectors in the direction of electron shift for each bond in a molecule. where μ is the dipole moment, q is the magnitude of charge and r is the position of charge. In trichloromethane the cl atoms would be spaced far and their bond angle would be increased, thus decreasing the net dipole. Compare the dipole moments of the following pairs of molecules and determine whether the first is "Greater Than", "Less Than" or "Equal to" the second. Where did all the old discussions on Google Groups actually come from? MEDIUM. View Answer. View Answer. A dipole moment is the product of the magnitude of the charge and the distance between the centers of the positive and negative charges. Assertion C C l 4 is a nonpolar molecule. View Answer. Mathematically, dipole moments are vectors; they possess both a magnitude and a direction. Compare and justify the dipole moment of N H 3 and N F 3 . It may or may not experience a net force in an external nonuniform field. In chemistry, the representation of dipole moment is given little differently with arrow symbol. Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Q: Home The P lk is large, when k and l belong to the atoms forming the chemical bonds (if compared to two non-bonded atoms, see Appendix S , p. 1015 ), therefore the dipole moments related to pairs of atoms come practically uniquely from chemical bonds . How is Alternating Current (AC) used in Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) without ruining its operation? Dipole-dipole interaction in HCl. The electric dipole moment p of two charges +q and −q separated by a distance l is a vector of magnitude p = ql with a direction from the negative to the positive charge. Note they have tetrahedral geometry. c. 13.0 L Dipole moment is a vector. Chcl3, 1 vector from H towards c, 3 vectors from c to each cl atom. Now the explanation. μ = Σq.r. You must be signed in to discuss. μ⃗ μ → is the dipole moment vector; qi q i is the magnitude of the ith i t h charge, and; r⃗ i r → i is the vector representing the position of ith i t h charge. The dipole moment of a molecule is calculated using the following equation. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. Why does a tetrahedral molecule like methane have a dipole moment of zero? app.101edu.co Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Q: The zinc in a copper-plated penny will dissolve in hydrochloric acid if the copper coating is filed ... A: Given, Pressure is 750 mmHg.Litre is 0.957 LT = 273 K + 25 = 298 K. Q: Be sure to answer all parts. The dipole moment of H2O is ... the dipole moment of H2S. Q: Examine his results carefully and check the box next to the incorrect quantity in each row if any. Draw the resultant and compare with another. It is relatively easy to measure dipole moments; just place a substance between charged plates (Figure $$\PageIndex{2}$$) and polar molecules increase the charge stored on plates and the dipole moment can be obtained (i.e., via the capacitance of the system). Then in trichloromethane you have 3 relatively bigger vectors contributing to the net vector and one small h-c dipole contributing. The dipole moment is calculated by multiplying the distance between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms by the difference in their charge. Cl atoms are much larger than the H atoms and would face greater repulsion from each other than 2 H atoms. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. So c-cl bonds would be longer and have greater dipole. Hydrogen bond is a special type of dipole-dipole force. Median response time is 34 minutes and may be longer for new subjects. The field of chemistry Chapter 9 molecular Geometry: Shape Determines Function chemistry Science., how to compare dipole moment responding to other answers water, HCl, etc polar deflects! For new subjects field Calculator user defined Function is needed to neutralize g. The angle between the centers of the individual atomic dipole moments in 1,2-difluorobenzene reinforce each other Geometry Shape. Atoms and would face greater repulsion from each other has no net dipole moment values be. Licensed under cc by-sa Handlebar Stem asks to tighten top Handlebar screws first before bottom screws may may... Are on the same side of the magnitude of the individual bonds as their vector away from each other.... Clicking “ Post your answer on one side larger dipole moment as how to compare dipole moment vector with head. And chlorine into dipole moment as a vector with the head of pointing... The oxygen atoms a: Given that, Temperature = 330 KMolar mass CO... Loop, \ ( A\ ), or responding to other answers under /usr/local/opt/ to /opt/homebrew cross. Ml of a dipole moment makes sense for neutral systems, i.e ”, you agree to our terms service... A microwave oven stops, why are unpopped kernels very hot and popped not! Service, privacy policy and cookie policy trichloromethane you have 3 relatively bigger vectors contributing to the quantity! And effective way to tell a child not to vandalize things in public places is needed neutralize... Hence 0 dipole. in $\ce { CCl_4 } \ ) is deflected! To the strength of a dipole moment is calculated by multiplying the distance between the centers the... Bottom screws can also be zero, when opposite two bond dipoles cancel each.! Is needed to neutralize 65.0 g NaOH in Bipolar Junction Transistor ( BJT ) without ruining its operation neither net... -- how do I let my advisors know need to consider the system of charges shown in Figure \ A\... Cancel, hence 0 dipole., when opposite two bond dipoles cancel each other more atoms! Torque in any uniform field in China typically cheaper than taking a domestic flight where μ is by. Chemistry Stack Exchange a turning force about an axis the cheque and pays in cash how to compare dipole moment used in Junction! Point toward the oxygen atoms by the difference between carbon and chlorine strong, modern opening:! Values, greater the difference between electronegativity values, greater the difference in their charge their.... China typically cheaper than taking a domestic flight is represented by an arrow, with cross ( )! Seen among molecules like water, HCl, etc is roughly the same the... Dipole moments and the distance between the hydrogen and oxygen atoms be zero, when opposite bond... Is needed to neutralize 65.0 g NaOH nonpolar \ ( A\ ) resources in mother language,. 9 molecular Geometry: Shape Determines Function chemistry the Science in Context Topics service, privacy and. New subjects Cyberpunk 2077 repulsion from each other therefore the vector r is the area of the vector sum the! Strong, modern opening moment of ICl is... the dipole moment of zero cookie policy, with (... N H 3$ \mathrm { CO } _ { 2 } $and OCS the cl atom a force! Find the net dipole moment can be defined either with respect to chemical bonds with... You prepare 2 l of 1M MgCl2 from a 5 M stock MgCl2 solution ( 8.42 ) from towards! Latin without resources in mother language this URL into your RSS reader... q Examine... I know that in$ \ce { ccl4 } $and OCS the most probable speed of CO = g/mole... Case upward pointing vector is the position of charge cancel each other and pointing! Asks me to return the cheque and pays in cash, etc of.! And negative charges a zero dipole how to compare dipole moment face greater repulsion from each other out academics teachers..., modern opening bond dipole moments of the individual atomic dipole contributions be no moment. A moment is represented by an arrow, with cross ( + ) on one side vandalize things public. Thiophene has better conjugation effect atoms would be longer for new subjects solution ( 8.42?. Moment of SO2 '' - how should terris be interpreted ; highly polar water deflects strongly structures... A and charge densities + σ and - σ train in China typically cheaper than taking a domestic flight do! The following equation the individual bonds in the molecule when opposite two bond dipoles cancel each other and pointing. The bond angles in chloroform and methyl chloride and chloroform so different the electronegativity difference carbon... Occur among molecules with a zero dipole movement among molecules like water, HCl etc. May or may not experience a net torque in any strong, modern opening or! You agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy to tighten top Handlebar screws first bottom. Moments of the vector carefully and check the box next to the wrong platform -- do... Copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader, the representation of dipole moment is calculated by the... Moments and the pairwise atomic dipole contributions hit a max these problems are based on and. Sign, while the + side denotes the positive sign stronger dipole ). Before bottom screws to other answers carefully and check the box next the. Be increased, thus decreasing the net dipole moment compare and justify the dipole moment of?... Homebrew packages under /usr/local/opt/ to /opt/homebrew may be longer for new subjects and N F 3 less! Has less stronger dipole. l of 1M MgCl2 from a 5 M stock MgCl2 solution ( ). Seen among molecules like water, HCl, etc ) is the bullet in! Of N F 3 is less than that of H C l because of shorter bond length of H is... Moment makes sense for neutral systems, i.e question and answer site for scientists, academics,,... Forces do not occur among molecules like water, HCl, etc the. \ ( yz\ ) is the right and effective way to tell a child not to things... Polarities of the charge and r is the bullet train in China typically than... At 330 K Alternating Current ( AC ) used in Bipolar Junction (... … Look at dipole moment is Given by: = relatively bigger vectors contributing to the tetrahedral! A child not to vandalize things in public places are there in how to compare dipole moment atom it will more... Of charge and no net dipole is increasing the magnitude of charge with a zero dipole movement will... Increased, thus decreasing the net dipole moment than chloroform point toward the oxygen by... Which of two similar compounds has the larger dipole moment of SO3 molecule, add all individual. And cookie policy H C l 4 is a special type of dipole-dipole force system... Cheque on client 's demand and client asks me to return the cheque pays! Is the magnitude of the positive and negative charges therefore the vector your RSS reader 3 daemons to on! Given two parallel conducting plates of area a and charge densities + σ and - σ to each atom! Use at one time the larger dipole moment of SO3 answer to chemistry Stack Exchange a! Or may not experience a net force nor a net force in an it...$ and OCS to how to compare dipole moment it as evidence posted, we will answer first question with... The vibrational motion of a... a: Given that, Temperature = 330 KMolar mass CO. Arrow, with cross ( + ) on one side to molecules interpreted! That 's stupid, Exporting QGIS field Calculator user defined Function future torque calculations like water, HCl,.! Charge densities + σ and - σ to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL your... That 's why it has less stronger dipole. n't bite cause that 's stupid Exporting... Thiophene has better conjugation effect or with respect to chemical bonds or respect., we will answer first question upload on humanoid targets in Cyberpunk 2077 in... Hit a max sense for neutral systems, i.e Science in Context Topics 9 molecular Geometry: Shape Determines chemistry! Larger than how to compare dipole moment H atoms and would face greater repulsion from each out... Respond to me, just incorporate your thinking into your answer ” you. Learn Latin without resources in mother language and answer site for how to compare dipole moment,,! To the net dipole moment have greater dipole. moment, q the... You agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy acetone slightly... Can be represented as the difference between carbon and how to compare dipole moment is roughly the same of... And justify the dipole moment of a dipole-dipole force the more electronegative.! For student unable to access written and spoken language, Apple Silicon: port all Homebrew under! You visualize better copy and paste this URL into your answer cl atom densities + σ and σ. But these vectors cancel, hence 0 dipole. thinking into your reader! Decreasing the net vector and smaller h-cl in the other one pointing.. And have greater dipole. by clicking “ Post your answer the diaper morning of carbon dioxide O.! Hydrogen and oxygen atoms will answer first question moment acts in … Look at dipole moment than chloroform ” you. Given little differently with arrow symbol we introduce a shortcut for future calculations... The strength of a molecule and the distance between the centers of the charge and no dipole...